¡Bienvenido al sitio de los Intercambios!
|Componentes de la 10f:||1º BAT A:||1º BAT B:|
Hicimos algunas adivinanzas sobre el Hinduismo para vosotros:
|politeísta||El Hinduismo es una religión ...|
|nirvana||La alma encontra liberación en la ...|
|renacer||En el Hinduismo no muertes, tu vas a ...|
|vaca||Cuál animal está sacro en el hinduismo?|
|Ganges||Cómo se llama el río más famoso de tantos ríos sacros?|
|India||Donde tiene el hinduismo su fuente?|
|Veden||Cómo se llama los cuatro sacros libros?|
|Brahmanen||... está el primero caja.|
|cuatro||Quánto cajas hay?|
|siente||Cuál numero está el numero más importante?|
|samsara||La palabra hinduistica para renacimiento.|
Busca algunas palabras importantes sobre el Hinduismo:
Introduction to Buddhism
To understand Buddhism or any religion, we must know its origins. Buddhism has its roots in Hinduism and both have their roots in the Vedic Age. The Vedic civilization existed in the northern and northwestern parts of the Indian subcontinent. At this time (2,500-1,500 BC) the sacred texts of the Vedas were being written. Buddhism began in the 6th century B.C. with the birth of Siddhartha Gautama which makes it one the oldest living religions in the world. Please, take a moment and share some of our investigation and please feel welcome to make any comments or add any information. Thank you for the word puzzles. They were fun!
Place Of Origin, Founder, Sacred Texts, Major Festivals & Holy Places
Place Of Origin
Place Of Origin
Buddhism was founded in North East India, by Siddhartha Gautama. It is older than 2500 years and it has over 350 million followers around the world.
--BAT1A 2011: Roland Gsell 09:57, 25. Mai 2011 (CEST)
The founder of Budhhism was Siddharta Gautama, his followers, named him Buddha. The name Buddha, means "awakened one". According to some facts, it is suposed that the Buddha was born in the family of king Suddhodana and queen Maya about the year 563 BCE. He was born near Southern Nepal.
The Buddha was a member of the Shakya tribe. There he was named Gautama. He was known there as "The sage of Shakya tribe".
--BAT1A 2011: Roland Gsell 09:45, 25. Mai 2011 (CEST) - Lolita
Tripitaka (Pali Canon)
The Tripitaka is the first collection of Buddhist tecniques and the only text that is recognized as canonical by Theravada Buddhists. Tripitaka means "three baskets,". It was originally written as: the text was written on long, narrow leaves, which were sewn at the edges then grouped into bunches and stored in baskets.
The Tripitaka was remembered orally, then, in the 3rd century BCE, it was written down. According to Buddhist tradition, the contents of the Tripitaka were determined at the First Buddhist Council, shortly after the Buddha's death. Over 400 of Buddha's disciples assembled.
--BAT1A 2011: Roland Gsell 11:37, 23. Mai 2011 (CEST) - Yolanda Baldo
Buddhists New Year
In a lots Theravadin countries, like for example: Thailand, Burma, Sri Lanka, Cambodia and Lao, the new year is celebrated three days from the first full moon day in the month of April. In Mahayana countries the new year starts on the first full moon day in the month of January. However, the Buddhist New Year depends on the country of origin or ethnic background of the people. For example, Chinese, Koreans and Vietnamese celebrate late January or early February according to the lunar calendar.
Normally, the Birthday of Buddha is known as Vesak or Visakah Puja (Buddha's Birthday Celebrations). Vesak is the biggest Buddhist festival of the year because it celebrates the birth, enlightenment and death of the Buddha on the one day, the first full moon day in May, except in a leap year when the festival is held in June. This festival is called Vesak, and it is the name of the month its Indian calendar.
Magha Puja Day
Magha Puja Day, takes places on the full moon day in March. This holy day is special to commemorate an important event in the life of Buddha. This event occurred in Buddha's early life, teaching life.
After Vassa, at the Deer Park at Sarnath, the Buddha went to Rajagaha city where 1250 Enlightened saints, who were the Buddha's disciples, without prior appointment, returned from their trips to pay respect to Buddha.
--BAT1A 2011: Roland Gsell 11:42, 23. Mai 2011 (CEST)
Holy places for Buddhists
Holy places for Buddhists
--BAT1A 2011: Katya Malinina 09:39, 25. Mai 2011 (CEST)
Sri Lanka's capital, is a very important Buddhist center in the world.
It is a rock cut cave formed by 31 caves. The cave monuments date from the 2nd century. Inside of the caves, you can observe paintings and sculptures considered to be masterpieces of both Buddhist religious artas well as frescos which are reminiscent of the Sigiriya paintings in Sri Lanka
The city is situated in the midst of hills in the Kandy plateau, that crosses the area of tropical plantations, specially tea. Kandy is one of the most scenic cities in Sri Lanka; it is an administrative and religious city. It is the capital of the Central Province (which encompasses the districts of Kandy, Matale and Nuwara Eliya) and also of Kandy District. Kandy is the home of The Temple of the Tooth Relic (Sri Dalada Maligawa) one of the most venerable places for the Buddhist community of Sri Lanka and all around the world. It was declared a world heritage by the UNESCO in 1988
It is a peak in the Gangdisê Mountains, that are part of the Himalayas in Tibet, China. It lies near the source of a lots of the longest rivers in Asia: as for example: the Indus River, the Sutlej River , the Brahmaputra River, and the Karnali River (a tributary of the Ganges River). It is considered a sacred place in five religions: In Hinduism, it is considered to be the abode of Lord Shiva and a place of eternal bliss.
A long time ago, it was settled in 819 by the monk Kūkai, Mt. Kōya is known as the world headquarters of the Kōyasan Shingon sect of Japanese Buddhism. Located in an 850 m high valley amid the eight peaks of the mountain (which was the reason this location was selected, in that the terrain is supposed to resemble a lotus plant), the original monastery has grown into the town of Kōya, featuring a university dedicated to religious studies and over 120 temples, many of which offer lodging to pilgrims.
This is a Buddhist pilgrimage site in the Rupandehi, a district of Nepal. It is the place where the Queen Mayadevi gave birth to her Son: Siddhartha Gautama.The Buddha lived around 563 and 483 BCE. Lumbini is one of four magnets for pilgrimage that sprang up in places pivotal to the life of the Buddha, the others being at Kushinagar, Bodh Gaya, and Sarnath.
--BAT1A 2011: Roland Gsell 12:02, 23. Mai 2011 (CEST) Katia Malinina
INTEGRANTES: Bogomil Leonidov, Angelica Camacho and Celia Ausias
The hero of our story is Prince Siddhartha, the Buddha-to-be, who lived more than 2,500 years ago.
His father was the Rajah of the Sakya clan, King Suddhodana, and his mother was Queen Maha Maya. They lived in India, in a city called Kapilavatthu, in the foothills of the Himalayas. He preferred the first outcome and prepared his son accordingly. His mother, first had a dream of a beautiful white elephant coming down into her womb, and this was interpreted as a sign that the Buddha, or a universal emperor, was about to be born. After seven days Queen Maya died, and her place as mother was taken by her sister.
Siddhartha Gautama was born about 583 BCE, in or near what is now Nepal. When Prince Siddhartha was a few days old, a holy man prophesied the Prince would be either a great military conqueror or a great spiritual teacher.
Siddhartha spends his childhood in the palace of his father at Kapilavastu, Southern Nepal, where he is raised by his aunt Mahaprajapati until the age of seven. As a young boy he learns the skills of a warrior, including the technical and athletic skills of man-to-man fight. At the early age of sixteen, he marries his beautiful cousin Princess Yasodhara, who is of equal age.
The young prince spends thirteen more years together with his wife in the royal court of his father. Three palaces are built for him, one for the cold season, one for the hot season, and one for the rainy season. Siddhartha enjoys the lavish court life while his father is trying to screen him from all troubles and worries. A son is born while Siddhartha is in his late twenties.
--BAT1A 2011: Bogomil Leonidov 09:52, 25. Mai 2011 (CEST)
Confirmed in his meditation, all these experiences awakened in Siddhartha the idea of abandoning his present life and embracing asceticism. He opened his heart to his father and said, "Everything in the world is changing and transitory. Let me go off alone like the religious beggar."
His mind made up, he awoke one night and, casting one last look at his wife and child, mounted his horse Kataka and rode off accompanied by his equerry Chandaka. At the city gates Siddhartha turned over his horse to Chandaka, then he cut off his hair, gave up his sumptuous robes, and entered a hermitage where the Brahmans accepted him as a disciple. Siddhartha had now and forever disappeared. He became the monk Gautama, or as he is still called, Sakyamuni, the ascetic of the Sakyas. For many years Gautama studied the doctrines until, having felt the need to learn more elsewhere, he traveled and fasted. His two teachers had showed him how to reach very deep states of meditation (samadhi). This did not, however, lead to a sense of true knowledge or peace, and the practice of deep meditation was abandoned in favour of a life of extreme asceticism which he shared with five companions.
--BAT1A 2011: Angélica Camacho Pellón 09:42, 1. Jun. 2011 (CEST)
What is the Buddhist's Goal in Life?
The goal in each life is to improve one's understanding of proper behavior, control desire and ultimately enter a state of Nirvana. This is stated as escaping the cycle of rebirth and death. The goal of Buddhism is nirvana — deliverance of the mind. That is the final goal and cessation of all sufferings and conflicts — supreme happiness. But, also, the Buddha emphasizes the importance of the present life. In Buddhism we find the economic, social, ethical, intellectual, and mental or spiritual aspects. Buddhism emphasizes these aspects and the Buddha teaches all aspects of human life. In Buddhism, the primary purpose of life is to end suffering.Then, you reach Nirvana. The Buddha taught that humans suffer because we continually strive after things that do not give lasting happiness. We desperately try to hold on to things - friends, health, material things - that do not last, and this causes sorrow. --BAT1A 2011: Mar Cortés Hernández 09:48, 25. Mai 2011 (CEST)
The Buddha described nirvāna as the perfect peace of the state of mind that is free from craving, anger, and other afflicting states. The word literally means "blowing out" or "extinguish" — referring in the Buddhist context, to the blowing out of the fires of greed, hatred, and delusion. The Buddha explains nirvāna as "the unconditioned" (asankhata) mind: a mind that has come to a point of perfect lucidity and clarity due to the cessation of the production of volitional formations. This is described by the Buddha as "deathlessness" and as the highest spiritual attainment. It carries further connotations of stilling, cooling, and peace. The realizing of nirvāṇa is compared to the ending of avidyā (ignorance) which perpetuates the will (cetana) into effecting the incarnation of mind into biological or other form passing on forever through life after life.--Daria malinina 09:31, 25. Mai 2011 (CEST)
--Daria malinina 09:31, 25. Mai 2011 (CEST)
--BAT1A 2011: Mar Cortés Hernández 11:59, 16. Mai 2011 (CEST)
THE PATH TO NIRVANA
In the religion Buddhism, Meditations carry a higher weight in One's practice to attain Nirvana. The Buddha always said: "One who is willing to attain Nirvana, has to understand Four Noble Truths. These Noble Truths are the key to attain Nirvana, without proper understanding of Suffering, Cause of Suffering, Relief of Suffering and the way to end Suffering, These are the four Noble Truths." According to various sources, a simple rendition of the Four Noble Truths is as follows:
1. Suffering exists 2. Suffering arises from attachment to desires 3. Suffering ceases when attachment to desire ceases 4. Freedom from suffering is possible by practising the Eightfold Path
--BAT1A 2011: Mar Cortés Hernández 11:33, 16. Mai 2011 (CEST)
--BAT1A 2011: Mar Cortés Hernández 09:42, 18. Mai 2011 (CEST)
How similar to Judaism, with its numerous directives about how to lead a spiritual life.
Bhante Piyadassi reflected a moment, then continued. "The Buddha speaks not only of a goal and life after death, but he also emphasizes (even more) the present life. For the Buddhist, this is not the only life.
The Eightfold Path
The Eight-Fold Path is the fourth of the Four Noble Truths - the first of the Buddha's teachings:
1. The truth of suffering 2. The truth of the cause of suffering 3. The truth of the end of suffering 4. The truth of the path that frees us from suffering
The path is a paradox. It is a conditioned thing that is said to help you to the unconditioned. Awakening is not "made" by anything: it is not a product of anything including the Buddha's teachings. Awakening, your true nature is already always present. We are just not awake to this reality. Clinging to limitation, and attempts to control the ceaseless flow of phenomena and process obscures our true nature. The path is a process to help you remove or move beyond the conditioned responses that obscure your true nature. In this sense the Path is ultimately about unlearning rather than learning - another paradox. We learn so we can unlearn and uncover. The Buddha called his teaching a Raft. To cross a turbulent river we may need to build a raft. When built, we single-mindedly and with great energy make our way across. Once across we don't need to cart the raft around with us. In other words don't cling to anything including the teachings. However, make sure you use them before you let them go. It's no use knowing everything about the raft and not getting on. The teachings are tools not dogma. The teachings are Upaya, which means skillful means or expedient method. It is fingers pointing at the moon - don't confuse the finger for the moon.
--BAT1A 2011: Romy Van Rooij 11:50, 16. Mai 2011 (CEST)
Buddhism does not aim to explain God, creation or eternal concepts. Such truths can only be found within the heart of a person. Whatever one holds within the heart is what is. What Buddhism does aim to do is help us overcome the chaos of this world and point us to a path that leads us to our own spirituality. We are all searching for the same things - freedom from our pain and realizing who we truly are, deep within.
The Buddha, Siddharth Gautama, in his contemplation, realized the truth about suffering and the path to liberation from it. This Eight-Fold Path and Four Noble Truths make up the foundation of Buddhism. Right View : The Four Noble Truths
1. The truth about suffering is that it exists. Life is suffering. Birth, aging and dying is suffering. 2. Our reaching into the world of dreams, our desire to fulfill what cannot be fulfilled is what brings us our suffering. 3. Only when we have broken the mirrors of illusion can we end our suffering 4. the Eight-Fold Path can help us to break our habits of suffering.
When we are able to recognize suffering as it enters our lives, see that our own desires have brought us this pain, and understand that letting go of this desire can bring us peace we have attained Right View.
Reality grows in the garden of the mind. Our world is the fruit of our thoughts that sprout from the seeds of ideas. We must therefore be discerning gardeners, looking carefully at what ideas we allow to take root within the mind. We must be able to recognize which ideas and thoughts are born of desire and which carry the seeds of desire that causes our suffering.
The seeds of suffering that take root within the mind are those of greed, ill-will, hostility, denigration, dominance, envy, jealousy, hypocrisy, fraud, obstinacy, presumption, conceit, arrogance, vanity and negligence. In Buddhism, these are known as the 15 defilements, and the Buddha realized 6 methods for removing such defilements from the mind:
1. Restraining: Restrain from what pleases the senses but bears poison. 2. Using: Use all that we are, all that we have, all there is to cultivate peace. 3. Tolerating: Tolerate all adversity, and never abandon our gardens to the wild. 4. Avoiding: Avoid all that is impure and spoils the soil of the mind. Tend only to what is pure and that which nurtures the pure. 5. Destroying: Remove the defilements by destroying them from the root. 6. Developing: Never cease to develop our skills of peacefulness.
We are often judged by our words. Long after we leave this world, our words shall remain. Words can often be sharper than the blade of the sword, bringing harm to the spirit of a person which can cause wounds that are deeper and last longer than that of a dagger. Therefore, we must choose our words carefully. The Buddha realized 4 methods of speech that bring peace to our lives and the lives of those who surround us.
1. Words of Honesty: Speaking without truth can be a means to our end and to the end of others. Therefore, honesty is always the best policy. 2. Words of Kindness: Speaking words of kindness, we will never be the cause that divides hearts or puts brother against brother. We become peacemakers. Our words are cherished and valued and shall bring peacefulness to ourselves and to those surrounding us. 3. Words that are Nurturing: Words that comfort rather than harm the heart, shall travel to the heart, and bring long lasting peace. 4. Words that are Worthy: Speaking only what is worthy and valuable for the moment, our words will always be found sweet to the ears of others and shall always be considered in a peaceful manner. Words of gossip, untruth, and selfishness do not return to us with peace. The worth of our words is measured by how much they improve the silence.
All of our lives we have been instructed to do the right thing. Often we are perplexed with what is the right thing. Ultimately, we must decide for ourselves what is right- but often our judgment is clouded by the defilements of the mind. While upon the Eight-Fold path, we must remember that our aim is to end our suffering. All we do, comes back to us in one way or another, eventually. What may be the right thing for the moment may not be the right thing for the next. Although this moment is the only one that exists, we must not fail to realize that within this moment- the past, present and future are contained. The truly right does not change from moment to moment. Look deep within your own heart, and you will know what is right.
The Golden Rule in Buddhism is: Do No Harm.
The Buddha practiced the following code of conduct in his own life:
1. Respect life 2. Earn all that you have 3. Control your desire, rather than allow desire to control you.
Often when one begins practicing the ways of Peace, a time comes when lifestyle must be evaluated. In this life, we have the opportunity to liberate ourselves from the cycle of suffering and find peace. We also have the opportunity to help others break free. Does one's way of life support or hinder the ways of Peace? Only the heart knows.
The path is not an easy one. Our habits of suffering are strong, and deeply imprinted in our way of life. It is difficult to maneuver peacefully in a world of chaos. Many of the things that we know we must let go of are things that we have held dearly for we have fought fiercely to obtain them. Our very own self- identity may have been formed with great personal sacrifice. Discipline and diligence is key to persevering on the path. Therefore, our decision to take up the path to liberation must be firm, and executed with right effort. When we have realized the truth of suffering, and are willing to seek liberation with the same tenacity as a drowning man struggles for a breath, then right effort has been attained.
Being mindful of the heart of matters can help us to overcome suffering with understanding. When sitting, laying or moving, being mindful of the following four frames of references are said by the Buddha to help us achieve great understanding, and can even help us unlock the secrets that are within our hearts.
1. The Body: Paying attention to our physical being can help us direct the mind away from the distractions of the world. Focusing on our breath, our movements, our actions, our components, and on the sheer miracle of our physical existence we can arrive at calmness and clarity. 2. Feelings: Paying attention to our external and internal feelings, observing their rise and fall, can help us realize their origination, development and decline. Understanding the nature of our feelings can help us let go and break our habits of clinging. 3. Mind: Turning the mind upon itself, observing our thoughts, can help us realize the origination and aim of our thoughts. With this understanding, we can understand the nature of the mind and overcome our thought habits of suffering. 4. Mental Qualities: Paying attention to our mental state of mind can help us recognize the five hindrances of our mentality (sensual desire, ill-will, laziness, anxiety and doubt). Observing their origination, development and decline, can help us realize how we can overcome them. By observing the origination, the components, the development, and the decline of things in regard to these frames of reference, we can find a deep understanding in the nature of ourselves, and to know our own hearts is to know the hearts of others.
As we sail through life, the winds of desire push us toward the Ocean of Suffering. But the skillful stand firm in virtue at the helm, directing the rudder of the mind toward peace. Single-minded concentration on the path to Peace (the Eight-Fold path) is right concentration. It is picking yourself up when you stumble and continuing onward. It is recognizing why you have fallen astray. It is recognizing when you are about to fall. It is continuing upon the path without hesitation or doubt. It is never ceasing to develop our skill in the way.
--BAT1A 2011: Romy Van Rooij 09:38, 1. Jun. 2011 (CEST)
The wheel (Skt. chakra; Tib. 'khor lo) is one of the most important Buddhist symbols, as it represents the teachings of the Buddha. The Buddha was the one who "turned the wheel of the dharma" and thus the wheel symbol is the Dharmachakra, or "wheel of law." The Tibetan term for this symbol, chos kyi'khor lo, means "the wheel of transformation."
Wheel on the ceiling of a Buddhist monastery in Sikkim, Himalayas. The wheel's motion is a metaphor for the rapid spiritual change engendered by the teachings of the Buddha: the Buddha's first discourse at the Deer Park in Sarnath is known as the "first turning of the wheel of dharma." His subsequent discourses at Rajgir and Shravasti are known as the "second and third turnings of the wheel of dharma." The eight spokes of the wheel symbolize the Noble Eightfold Path set out by the Buddha in his teachings.
The wheel also represents the endless cycle of samsara, or rebirth, which can only be escaped by means of the Buddha's teachings. And some Buddhists regard the the wheel's three basic parts as symbols of the "three trainings" in Buddhist practice: The hub symbolizes moral discipline, which stabilizes the mind. The spokes (usually there are eight) represent wisdom which is applied to defeat ignorance. The rim represents training in concentration, which holds everything else together. The wheel was a common symbol in early Buddhist art, before the introduction of Buddha images.
--BAT1A 2011: Alicia Tomas 09:42, 1. Jun. 2011 (CEST)
Moral Code Of Buddhists
The system of Buddhist morals is based on freedom and understanding,that is to say that morality adapts to changing situations.The foundation of moral and ethical actions is Compassionate Love, which is also known as Metta. Buddhism is not just a religion, but also a discipline and a way of life that encourages people to follow certain guidelines to help them conquer suffering.
Equality and peace are fundamental in the moral code of a Buddhist. Social justice, social welfare, and social service provide are the building blocks of a moral society.
The Five Precepts of Buddhism are actually the gist of the teachings and a moral guideline that people can follow. These precepts, if followed, can help people to build up their moral strength and live peacefully with their fellow beings.
Refrain from killing
The first precept is not to take the life of any living thing.This teaching is about being non-violent. Non-Buddhists may have trouble with this precept as it would mean that you shouldn't kill disease carrying bugs or kill animals for food. Approval of killing by others and participation in killing is also considered wrong. This precept is about protecting lives and cultivating an innate kindness towards other beings. Since this teaching advocates non-violence, it also urges people to be vegetarians.
Refrain from stealing
The second percept is not to take anything that has not been freely given. It’s about respecting other people's properties and not taking it by stealing or by force. If something hasn't been given to you, then you have no right to it. Stealing not only applies to material goods, but also to time and effort. You should be responsible and not fritter away someone else's time. This precept also urges people to be generous, kind, sympathetic and respectful to everyone.
Refrain from sexual misconduct or sensual overindulgence
According to the teachings of Buddhism, sexual desire is one of the biggest hurdles to enlightenment and one of the most difficult temptations to overcome. Sexual misconduct like adultery and rape, which cause mental, emotional and physical injury to others, are absolutely forbidden. This precept, like all Buddha's teachings, urges people to respect others by abstaining from sexual misconduct. People who are in love with each other and participate in premarital sex are not considered to be engaging in sexual misconduct in the eyes of Buddhists. Christians might compare this precept to "you shalt not commit adultery".
Refrain from lying
The fourth precept is to refrain from the use of untrue speech, falsehoods/lies. Respecting the truth is one of the most important principles of Buddhism. Denying the truth is actually lying, which can create guilt, confusion and disharmony. Buddhists are also asked to keep away from half-truths, exaggeration or understatements and, instead, work on being honest. It is believed that being completely honest with oneself and others will reduce disharmony and misunderstandings in the world. Non-Buddhists may liken this to the concept "If you can't say something nice, don't say something at all".
Refrain from drugs and alcohol
The fifth precept is to avoid intoxication, consuming intoxicants like alcohol and drugs can erode that wisdom and these are also harmful for health. A state of intoxication increases the chances of committing crimes and wrongdoing. It is easier to commit evil deeds or injure others when people are drunk or drugged. It is believed that anyone who breaks this precept will actually be dishonoring all the other precepts.
The moral code of Buddhists is complex, but is based upon obtaining a society that treats all people equally, is mindful of the needs of every human, and is accomplished through social service to others in the society.
Meditation is important to become more aware and attentive and only a calm mind can meditate. People who observe this precepts will lead happy lives.
These practical precepts can be practiced not only by Buddhists, but by anyone who wishes to lead a happy, simple and honest life.
BAT1A 2011: Daniel Trachsel Moncho 09:45, 11. Mai 2011 (CEST)
BAT1A 2011: Lea Muñoz 11:37, 16. Mai 2011 (CEST)
Symbols in Buddhism
Wheel of Life
Wheel of life generally refers to the Bhavacakra, an instructional figure in Buddhism. The Bhavacakra ) is a symbolic representation of samsara(or cyclic existence) found on the outside walls of Tibetan Buddhist temples and monasteries in the Indo-Tibet region. In the Tibetan Buddhist tradition, it is believed that the drawing was designed by the Buddha himself in order to help ordinary people understand the Buddhist teachings.
First the contex
*The Wheel of Life is the context, the way Buddhists see the world and our human condition, the reason we do what we do.
First the contex - where we are, the way things actually are. In the Buddha-Dharma this is described by a formula known as the Three Signs of Being. First the contex - where we are, the way things actually are. In the Buddha-Dharma this is described by a formula known as the Three Signs of Being.
There is a presentation about the Wheel of Life, that explains in what consists-> https://docs.google.com/present/edit?id=0AU0TP80L_-ZGZGN6d2s4ZGpfMjdkano3OXNoYw&hl=es&authkey=CPTMmbMF
--BAT1B 2011: Jaume Lloret García 14:07, 2. Jun. 2011 (CEST)
The Five Skandhas
The Five Skandhas consist of clusters of dharmas, all arising existing for a moment and then passing away. This is all there is. The Buddha is quite clear about this: there is no 'I' in this; there is nothing extra. It is the skandhas, formed by a continual procession of clusters of dharmas coming to be and ceasing to be, that make up the human being. There is no part of these skandhas that is not in a state of change. A traditional story illustrates this point.
A merchant on a two-day journey to market reached the end of the first day. As it was summer and hot, rather than spend money on putting up at the inn he decided to sleep in the open air. Looking over the cemetery wall he saw an inviting, cool gravestone. He hopped over the wall, lay on the gravestone and promptly fell asleep. In the middle of the night he was awoken by an deafening uproar from the end of the cemetery. He rolled off the gravestone and hid behind an upright stone. There was a tumultuous noise of stomping and clamour. He looked over the gravestone and in the far corner of the graveyard there were two huge demons, one red and one blue. They were tearing open the graves and devouring the corpses. The merchant was terrified and didn't know what to do. He couldn't escape because these two huge demons might catch and devour him too, so he looked for a hiding place. He saw a weeping willow with branches trailing to the ground, an excellent hiding place. Moving carefully and quickly he climbed up into its branches and hid clinging to the high branches in the middle of the tree. Unfortunately, he was shivering and shaking with fright so much that it made the tree itself tremble.
Eventually the red demon noticed the shaking tree. With two giant strides he went over to the tree and parted the branches like curtains, and there clinging to the trunk was the terrified merchant, who pleaded, 'Please don't eat me, please don't eat me. I've a wife and four children. If you eat me what will become of them?' The red demon was unmoved and grasped the merchant and tore off his right arm and devoured it. Meanwhile the blue demon had come over and had heard the merchant's plea and was moved by it. The blue demon smashed open one of the graves, lifted the lid of a newly buried coffin and tore off the right arm of the corpse and stuck it on to the merchant. Then the red demon, getting into his stride, tore off one of the merchant's legs. In response the blue demon smashed open another grave, tore off the leg of the corpse and stuck it on to the merchant. And so it went, limb for limb, head for head, torso for torso, and each time the red demon tore off a body part the blue demon replaced it from one of the corpses. This continued until the two demons vanished as the day began to dawn. A dishevelled, uncertain, somewhat shaken, merchant climbed down from the willow tree. He decided that he was not in a fit state to continue his journey. The fact was, his mind was consumed with an overwhelming question: 'Who am I?'
Here are the Five Skandhas, and on one side there is the red demon, on the other side the blue demon. As a cluster of dharmas arises, the red demon snatches it away. Immediately the blue demon replaces it with a new cluster of dharmas, only for the red demon to snatch it away, and immediately again the blue demon replaces it with a new cluster of dharmas. Thus is formed a continuous procession of dharmas.
Click here to view Flash movie of the Tibetan Wheel of Life Roll mouse slowly over Twelve Links, Three Fires and Yama--> http://www.thebuddhistsociety.org/resources/Wheel.html
The Lotus Flower
According to Buddhist principles, the heart of a person who has not attained enlightenment is the embodiement of a lotus that has not blossomed yet. Once enlightenment has been reached their heart becomes a lotus in bloom.
This is why depictions of Buddha often show him seated upon an open lotus flower.
A common way of understanding the Buddhist concepts of enlightement is told through the parable of the lotus. The lotus grows in muddy water, and yet the dirt and muddy water fall off its leaves and petals, keeping it clean and pure.
Buddhist Lotus Flower Quote from Sri Guru Granth Sahib:
"You Yourself are the water, You Yourself are the fish, and You Yourself are the net. You Yourself cast the net, and You Yourself are the bait. You Yourself are the lotus, unaffected and still brightly-colored."
A connection is made that the seed of the lotus blossom represents a person at an early stage of the karmic cycle.
As the person continues to walk their path and rises higher in their spiritual evolution, they leave the murky water of samsara (pain/suffering/attachment) behind.
This is when the lotus bud emerges from under the water and reaches a purer state of consciousness. Over time the bud blossoms as they move towards a state of nirvana.
When a person has reached nirvana (enlightement/freedom from worldly attachments) they are representative of a perfect lotus bloom.
The lotus appears elsewhere in Buddhism as well. It is one of the eight auspicious Buddhist symbols, has it's own title as one of the Buddhist holy books, "The Sutra on the White Lotus of the Sublime Dharma", also known more simply as the Lotus Sutra, and is mentioned by Buddha repeatedly in his teachings.
Lotus flowers can be found adorning household items, temples, and art throughout asia including China, Thailand, Japan and more.
The color of the Buddhism Lotus Flower also has signifigance.
The white lotus symbolizes the state of Bodhi, peace and serenity.
The red lotus symbolizes the heart-state of compassion and love.
The blue lotus symbolizes wisdom.
The pink lotus symbolizes the Buddha and enlightenment.
The golden lotus symbolizes the worlds beyond this one on higher realms. --BAT1B 2011: Andoni Martínez Rodríguez 09:28, 20. Mai 2011 (CEST)| --
The Bodhi Tree
This tree is a frequent destination for pilgrims, being the most important of the four main Buddhist pilgrimage sites.
The Bodhi Tree, was a large and very old Sacred Fig tree located in Bodh Gaya , under which Siddhartha Gautama, is said to gain enlightenment, or Bodhi. The Bodhi tree has heart-shaped leaves, which are usually prominently displayed. It takes 100 to 3,000 years for a bodhi tree to fully grow.
BAT1A 2011: Daniel Trachsel Moncho 09:40, 25. Mai 2011 (CEST)
The footprints of the Buddha (Buddhapada) are one of the early representations of the Buddha. The Buddhapada are revered in all Buddhist countries, especially in Sri Lanka and Thailand. It symbolize the physical presence of the Enlightened One.
According to Buddhist legend, after the Buddha attained enlightenment, his feet made an imprint in the stone where he stepped.
In another tradition, the infant Buddha took seven steps after his birth to symbolize his spiritual domination of the universe.
There is like a contradiction in the symbolization of the footprints of Buddha because it is said that it symbolize the Buddha's presence, as they are believed to be the imprints where the Buddha actually touched the ground and at the same time, the Buddhapada signify the Buddha's absence now that he has entered nirvana.
The Buddha's footprints are decorated with other symbols of Budddhism like the dharmachakra (wheel) in the center, the lotus, the swastika and the triratna (Three Jewels).
These symbols are also seen on the bottom of the feet of large statues of the reclining Buddha.
Sculptures of Buddha's footprints are usually protected in a special temple structure, where the faithful bring flowers and other offerings to them. The Buddhapada image can also be found on Tibetan thangkas.
BAT1A 2011: Lea Muñoz 09:30, 1. Jun. 2011 (CEST)
The Begging Bowl
The begging bowl, or alms bowl, is one of the simplest but most important objects in the daily lives of Buddhist monks. It is primarily a practical object, used as a bowl in which to collect alms (either money or food) from lay supporters.
But it also has symbolic significance associated with the historical Buddha. According to one legend, when he began meditating beneath the Bodhi Tree, a young woman offered him a golden bowl filled with rice, thinking he was the divinity of the tree. He divided the rice into 49 portions, one for each day until he would be enlightened, and threw the precious bowl into the river.
This and other legends, combined with its humble monastic uses, have made the simple begging bowl a symbol of the Buddha's teachings on nonattachment.
The Vinaya states that monks may use bowls made of either iron or clay, and they can be either small, medium, or large.
The word for begging-bowl in Pali is patta; in Sanksrit it is patra.
--BAT1B 2011: Francisco Segura Fernández 13:56, 2. Jun. 2011 (CEST)
Also known as the Lion of Buddha. A ‘lion among men’ was how the earliest followers of Buddha’s referred to their enlightened master. In time, the lion was adopted as a symbol of Buddha himself, and remains the animal most often associated with him. Legend would have us believe that a lion followed the Buddha around after his enlightenment. In most parts of the world, the lion has always been associated with royalty, sovereignty and divinity. In India, the birthplace of Buddha, the lion was seen as the king of animals and represented the courage and wisdom. The lion was a symbol of religious fervor and respect for the law. In religious art and symbolism, was depicted as a companion (or frame) of many of the heroes of the myths and legends of India, including some of the gods.
The Throne is both a reference to Siddharta Gautama's royal ancestry and to the idea of spiritual kingship - enlightenment as ruler of the spiritual world. The ancient stone carvings above show the Dharmachakra and the Bodhitree on top of the throne. Sometimes the base of the throne is decorated with other symbols such as lions and deer, both associated with the Buddha's teachings.
The Three Precious Jewels
The Three Jewels, also called the Three Treasures, the Three Refuges, are the three things that Buddhists take refuge in, and look toward for guidance, in the process known as taking refuge.
The Three Jewels are:
Buddha: In Hindu mythology, Budha (Sanskrit: बुध) is the name for the planet Mercury, a son of Chandra (the moon) with Tara or Rohini. He is also the god of merchandise and protector of Merchants. He is represented as being mild, eloquent, and of greenish color. He is represented holding a scimitar, a club and a shield, riding a winged lion in Ramghur temple. In other illustrations, he holds a sceptre and lotus and rides a carpet or an eagle or a chariot drawn by lions.
Dharma: (Sanskrit: धर्म dhárma, Pali: धम्म dhamma; lit. that which upholds or supports) means Law or Natural Law (as in the natural order of things) and is a concept of central importance in Indian philosophy and religion. In the context of Hinduism, it refers to one's personal obligations, calling and duties, and a Hindu's dharma is affected by the person's age, caste, class, occupation, and gender. In modern Indian languages it can refer simply to a person's religion, depending on the context. The idea of dharma as duty or propriety derives from an idea found in India's ancient legal and religious texts that there is a divinely instituted natural order of things (rta) and justice, social harmony and human happiness require that human beings discern and live in a manner appropriate to the requirements of that order. According to the various Indian religions, such as Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, and Sikhism, beings that live in accordance with dharma proceed more quickly toward dharma yukam, moksha or nirvana (personal liberation).
Sangha: (Pali: सन्घ saṅgha; Sanskrit: संघ saṃgha; Wylie: 'dus sde) is a word in Pali or Sanskrit that can be translated roughly as "association" or "assembly," "company" or "community" with common goal, vision or purpose. Sangha is the third of the Three Jewels in Buddhism. The term is commonly used in several senses to refer to Buddhist or Jain groups.
By: Fernando Mencía, María Rubio and Noelia López.
The Umbrella or Parasol
decorative BURMESE gold/silk BUDDHIST umbrella parasol This beautiful umbrella is used in Buddhist ceremonies to initiate young monks. The first time I saw this beautiful parasol was in the Shewedagon pagoda in Rangoon , Burma several years ago. T was a family ritual going on in one section of the pagoda. A young boy about 10 was being initiated into the Buddhist religion. He was wearing a golden costume with a golden hat with a spire on top. He was riding on his fathers shoulders. Over his head, shading him from the sun, was this umbrella. It was being held by his uncle who carefully followed the procession and kept the boy protected from the blistering sun. It was the most beautiful umbrella I had ever seen, and I was determined to get one for myself. I found a small shop in the west gate of the Pagoda which sold the umbrellas along with other religious items. I bought one and brought it back to the states.
Several years later I returned to Burma . I went back to the same stall. They remembered me and were delighted to sell me more. This time I had them shipped back.
The umbrella symbolizes love and protection. In the Pagodas and Wats of south east Asia you will see the umbrellas standing over the statues of The Buddha protecting him.
It creates quite a presence. Perfect for sun room or living room with Asian decor.
Color combinations vary slightly from photo, but all will have a vibrant colors.
by :Juan José Soliveres
The Golden Fish
The Treasure Vase
The vase is a fat-bellied vessel with a short, slim neck. On top, at the opening, there is a large jewel indicating that it is a treasure vase.
Its symbolic meaning was almost always associated with the ideas of storage and the satisfaction of material desires. In the sagas and fairytales of many different cultures, for example, there is the recurring idea of an inexhaustible vessel.
Physically, the 'vase of inexhaustible treasures' is modelled on the traditional Indian clay water pot or kumbha with a flat base, round body, narrow neck and fluted upper rim. However much is removed from it, this vase remains perpetually full. Wealth vases, sealed with precious and sacred substances, are commonly placed upon altars and on mountain passes, or buried at water springs, where their presence is believed to attract wealth and bring harmony to the environment. In relation to Buddhism it specifically means the spiritual abundance of the Buddha, a treasure that did not diminish, however much of it he gave away.
by: Juanjo Soliveres.
Types Of Buddhism. Main Branches or Denominations:
By: Patricia Segura, Mónica López, Lydia Diago, María Lloret
This is a brief introduction to Buddhism in Japan focusing on the main schools in Japan and terms the student is likely to encounter in the course of readings for HUM 310 Japan. It is not intended as a comprehensive look at Buddhism but is selective of material to assist the student in understanding the role of Buddhism in Japanese culture and society. Buddhism was brought to Japan from China at different periods by various individuals whose studies and practice differ widely. Buddhism as practiced in Japan has been shaped by Japanese cultural practices and values and has developed differently from Buddhism practiced elsewhere in Asia. In Japan, Zen Buddhism has become one of the major forms of Buddhist practice and is the most well-known form of Japanese Buddhism outside of Japan.Buddhism was first introduced into Japan from Korea in the year 522. As a foreign religion, it first met with resistence but it was recognized in 585 by emperor Yomei. During the period of government of Prince Shotoku (593-621) it was the official religion of Japan. Shotoku fostered the study of Buddhist scriptures and founded Horyu-ji in Nara among other temples. During this period it was primarily the Sanron school that spread.
Buddhism Spreading In The World
Long ago, Buddhism began to spread southwards from its place of origin in northern India to Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, Indo-China and other South East Asian countries. It also moved northwards into the Himalayan kingdoms (Sikkim, Bhutan, Nepal), Tibet, Mongolia and other parts of Central Asia, and also into China.
This was a fortunate development because Buddhism all but died out in India after the Moslem incursions of the 11th Century ce. Unfortunately, between the years 900 and 1100 the Buddhism eliminated in the India almost completely, due to the invasions of the Muslims, that Buddhists destroyed great quantity of monasteries and universities and massacred lots of monks. Nevertheless, a long before his disappearance in the India, the Buddhism had spread in diverse directions. In the 3rd century before our age it had turned into the official religion of Ceylon and, from there, had spread towards the south and this, becoming popular in Thailand, Burma, Cambodia and Indonesia, in his form theravada. At present, the " way of the major ones " is still the principal spiritual tradition of these regions.
The branch mahayana spread towards Central Asia, across them Himalayan and entered to the vast Chinese empire. Of there it came near to Mongolia, Korea, Japan and Vietnam, with what it turned into the most widespread branch of the tradition.
The spread of the branch vajrayana followed a distance similar to that of the mahayana. It reached them Himalayan, the Tibet, China, Mongolia and Japan, though for his advanced esoteric form it did not include so many followers as the mahayana.
BUDDHISM IN OCCIDENT
Buddhism became known in Occident during the 19th century. The majority of the authors who were writing on Buddhism were doing it with an academic interest. To the scholars it was attracting the analytical and rational exposition of the school theravada of the southeast of Asia and they were interested especially the fact that it was basing his educations on a collection of writings so near to the words of the Buda. These scholars were thinking that the theravada was the "authentic" Buddhism.
During the first half of the 20th century the Buddhism theravada continued being the most known form in Occident. Nevertheless, they started knowing other traditions that called very much the attention. In the second half of the 20th century other schools became popular, like the japanese zen and the Tibetan Buddhism.
Buddhism in Germany looks back to a history of over 150 years. Arthur Schopenhauer was one of the earliest Germans who were influenced by Buddhism. He got his knowledge of Buddhism from authors like Isaac Jacob Schmidt.
In 1903 the first German Buddhist Organisation was founded by the Indologist Karl Seidenstücker in Leipzig.In this country there are over 245.000 buddhists, and most of them are members of this organisation.
--BAT1A 2011: Rafael Bautista Yanez 11:46, 30. Mai 2011 (CEST)
SPAIN The Spanish came into contact with Japanese Buddhists when some Jesuit missionaries settled in Japan and China in the sixteenth century.
In Buddhism the faithful is called "dharma students" and their meeting places "think tanks."
In Spain the first research center opened in 1977 in Barcelona and belongs to a "Karma Kagyu Kagyu lineage of Tibetan Buddhism, promoted by the teacher Akong Rinpoche.
In the year 1978 reached the Lama Thubten Yeshe Ibiza, enthusiastic teacher to people who had never heard of this religion which is primarily a philosophy, this prompted the creation of centers of all traditions in many parts of Spain and Mallorca, Alicante, Barcelona, Madrid, Valencia, Granada ...
Were created later monasteries, temples and retreat centers at selected sites and usually far from large cities to promote the gathering, as Dag Shang Kagyu, one of the most important in Spain and more reliant on ten centers, founded in 1984 in the province of Huesca. It has over 125 hectares devoted to the practice and study of Buddhism with the aim of spreading the Buddhist Dharma to anyone who is interested or not and to support those who wish to deepen their practice. Includes Shedra temple, stupas, an area of houses for short retreats and other Senior Retreat, where you can carry out the traditional retirement more than three years. For all these reasons is one of the most representative, visited spots of the Spanish geography.
Since 1991 works as official representative of Buddhism in Spain to the authorities and society, the Federation of Buddhist Communities of Spain, whose current president is Florencio Serrano. It is an association of those repositories of Buddhist Communities inimterrumpido lineage of practice and teaching that goes back to the Buddha Sakyamuni and entered in the Register of Religious Communities of the Ministry of Justice with a minimum of three years old.
It is estimated that in Spain there are about 40,000 registered Buddhist study centers and nearly 65,000 practitioners.
Moral Issues From A Buddhist Point Of View
Family, Marriage & Divorce (Pre-marital sex/adultery)
Life After Death
Rebirth in Buddhism is the doctrine that the evolving consciousness or stream of consciousness upon death.
Buddhism teaches that when a person dies they are reborn and that this process of death and rebirth will continue until Nirvana is attained. This raises the question : "What is the person?" Most religions believe that the core of the person, the real person, is the soul, a non-material and eternal entity that survives in the afterlife. Buddhism on the other hand says that the person is made up of thoughts, feelings and perceptions interacting with the body in a dynamic and constantly changing way. At death this stream of mental energy is re-established in a new body.
Critics of the Buddhist doctrine of rebirth say that if there is no soul, only a changing stream of mental energy, then there could be no identity and thus to talk of a person being reborn or experiencing the results of good or bad actions done in the past, is meaningless. However this criticism fails to understand the phenomenon of identity in change. Even within a single life we can notice a person change, sometimes quite dramatically, and yet still be able to recognise them as the same person. This is possible because different aspects of the person changes at different velocities.
While all Buddhist traditions seem to accept some notion of rebirth, there is no unified view about precisely how events unfold after the moment of death.Some schools conclude that karma continued to exist and adhere to the person until it had worked out its consequences. For the Sautrantika school each act "perfumed" the individual and led to the planting of a "seed" that would later germinate as a good or bad karmic result.
Buddhism generally asserts that rebirth is immediate while the Tibetan schools hold to the notion of a bardo (intermediate state) that can last up to forty-nine days. This has led to the development of a unique 'science' of death and rebirth, a good deal of which is set down in what is popularly known as The Tibetan Book of the Dead. One school that adopted this view was the Sarvastivada, who believed that between death and rebirth there is a sort of limbo in which beings do not yet reap the consequences of their previous actions but may still influence their rebirth. The death process and this intermediate state were believed to offer a uniquely favourable opportunity for spiritual awakening.
In Buddhism, rebirth is part of the continuous process of change. In fact, we are not only reborn at the time of death, we are born and reborn at every moment. This too, like many other Buddhist teachings, is easily verifiable by reference to our own experience and by reference to the teachings of science. For instance, the majority of the cells in the human body die and are replaced many times during the course of one’s life. Even those few cells which last one’s entire life undergo constant internal changes. This is part of the process of birth, death and rebirth. If we look at the mind too, we find that mental states of worry, happiness and so forth are changing every moment. They die and are replaced by new states. So whether we look at the body or the mind, our experience is characterized by continuous birth, death and rebirth.
We shall list here the most distinctive moments of otherworldly experience taken from contemporary books on life after death.
1. Seeing a double. Upon dying, a person does not immediately realize his state. Only after seeing his "double" lying breathless below him and becoming convinced that he is incapable of making himself known to the living, does he realize that his soul has left its body. Sometimes, as in an unexpected accident or other sudden death, the soul does not recognize its body and thinks it is someone else, who looks like them. The seeing of one's "double" and the inability to attract the attention of the living creates a shocking impression on the soul, so that it is not sure if it is a dream or reality.
2. Continuous consciousness. All, who have had a life after death experience, witness that they maintained their feeling of self, all of their mental and sensory abilities and their free will. In fact, their vision and hearing became more acute; their thought acquires precision and becomes extremely energetic, the memory clarifies. People who had long ago, due to illness or age, lost certain abilities regained them anew. They could see, hear, think and so forth all without the aid of their physical being. It is amazing; for example, that a man blind from birth, upon leaving his body, could see everything that was being done to his body by the doctors and nurses. He later recounted everything he had seen in great detail. Having returned into his body he was again rendered blind. The doctors and psychiatrists who define the functions of thought and emotion as just electrochemical processes of the brain should look into the data gathered by the reanimating doctors in order to correctly understand man’s nature.
3. Alleviation. Usually, death’s precursor is illness and suffering. However, once it has left the body the soul rejoices that the pain is gone and there is no longer any pressure or choking. The mind is clear and the senses tranquil. The person begins to accept his soul, and the body becomes secondary and no longer necessary, as does the rest of the material world. " I leave, and the body — an empty shell" explained one man with near death experience. He watched the operation on his heart like "an uninvolved bystander." Attempts to revive his body did not interest him. Apparently, he had made his peace with his past life and was ready to start a new and better life. He did, however, retain love for his family and concern for the children whom he was leaving.
At this point, it is important to mention that there is no rudimentary change in the character of one's personality. The uniqueness of the personality remains as it was. "The supposition that upon discarding the body the soul begins to know and understand all things — is untrue. I came into this new world the same as I had left the old." (narrated K. Uekskuell).
4. The Tunnel and the Light. Soon after seeing its body and surroundings some souls continue into the other spiritual world. While others, not noticing the first, go directly to this second stage. The passage to the spiritual world is described by some as a journey through a dark space, reminiscent of a tunnel at the end of which they come into the realm of unearthly light. There is a painting of the 15th century of Hieronymus Bosch "Ascent to Empyrean" that depicts a comparable travel through a tunnel. It must be that even then this experience was known by some.
The following are two modern-day accounts of this stage:
"I heard the doctors declare me dead. At the time, I was swimming through a dark area. There are no words to describe this condition. I was surrounded by darkness and only far in the distance could I see a light. It was very bright, although at first it seemed small. As I came closer the light grew. I was being carried towards the light and I could feel that it emanated good. Being a Christian, I remember the words of Christ, who said, "I am the light of the world," and I thought. If this is death, then I know who is waiting for me [1, pg. 62].
"I knew that I was dying" another man recalled. "I could do nothing to relay this as no one could hear me. I was outside my body. This is for certain, since I could see my body on the operating table. My soul had left the body. Consequently, I felt lost, but then a special light shone. At first it was pale, then it became a bright beam. I felt its warmth. The light enveloped everything, but did not impede my ability to see the operating room, doctors, nurses and all the rest. I could not understand what was going on and then a voice out of the light spoke and asked me if I was ready to die. He spoke as a man even though there was no one there. It was, evidently, the Light which was asking me… Now I understand, that He knew that I was not ready, but was in a way testing me. From the time the light began to speak, I felt a well-being; I felt safe and He loved me. The love coming from the Light was unimaginable and indescribable" [1, pg. 63]
All who have seen the otherworldly light and have tried to describe it could not find the right words. The light was unlike the one known in this world. "It was a light, void of darkness, complete and full."[5, pg. 66]. Most testimonies speak of the light as a morally good being, not an impersonal energy. Religious people identify the light as an Angel or even as Our Lord Jesus Christ — in either instance as someone bringing love and peace. On meeting with the Light they do not hear separate words uttered in a recognizable language. The Light communicated with them by way of thought and in such a way that everything was so clear that to conceal any thought from the Light was completely impossible.
5. A review and judgement. Some near death survivors describe a session during which they reviewed their lives. Sometimes the review happened during their vision of the Light, who asked them, "What good things have you done?" Though, there was an understanding that the Light already knew the answer, but wanted to raise their awareness of the moral value of their actions in life. Immediately after they are asked, their spiritual eyes allow them to see their life, from early childhood, unfolding before them like a slide-show. A series of quickly changing pictures, each detailing an episode in which the person can clearly see all that has happened to him. During this time, the person re-lives these scenes and morally re-evaluates everything he had said and done.
Here is a typical story, illustrating the process of review. "When the Light came, he asked me: "What have you done in your life? What can you show me? (Or something to that effect). And then these pictures started to appear. They were very perceptible, colorful, three-dimensional and moving. My whole life passed before me… here I am, still a small girl, playing with my sister… then scenes from my home… my school… here I am getting married… everything quickly passing before my eyes in great detail. I again re-lived these experiences… I saw an event, where I was vain and cruel. I felt ashamed and I wished it had never happened, but it was impossible to change the past" [1, pg. 65-68].
From a collective look at many of these stories of life-reviews, it is important to include that these experiences have always left a deep and beneficial impression on those who have had them. Indeed, during the review a person is forced to re-evaluate his actions, prepare a summary of his past and in so doing, judge himself. In daily life, people hide the negative sides of their personality and in some ways hide behind their good deeds in order to appear to others to be better than they actually are. Most people become accustomed to this hypocrisy, and stop seeing their underlying nature that is often proud, vain and covetous. But, at the time of death this mask is removed and a person sees himself as he really is. Especially those actions which were painstakingly hidden from the world, are seen in full panoramic 3-D, — each word is heard, long forgotten events are experienced anew. All of life's accomplishments, social and economic: position, diplomas, titles and so forth, lose their meaning. The only thing that is evaluated is the moral worth of each action. Then the person must judge himself not only for what he has done, but also how he has through his words or actions affected other people.
Here is how another person described his review. "I felt myself outside of my body, floating above a building, and I could see my body lying below. Then a light surrounded me, and within it I could see a vision of my whole life. I became incredibly ashamed, because of what I saw. Many things, which I had previously considered normal and had justified, were now obviously wrong. Everything was extremely realistic. I could feel that I was being judged and some higher intelligence was guiding and helping me to see. What amazed me most is that I could see not only what I had done, but also how my actions had affected others. It was then that I understood that nothing goes unrecorded and that everything, even each thought, has a consequence" [2, pg. 34-35].
The next two excerpts from people who have experienced life after death demonstrate how the review has taught them to look at life differently. "I did not tell anyone about what I had experienced in the moments of my death, but when I returned to life, I was troubled by a desire to do something good for others. I was so ashamed of myself." "When I returned, I decided that it was imperative to change. I felt repentant and my former life did not satisfy me. I decided to start a new way of life" [2, pg. 25-26].
Now let us imagine a career criminal: a liar, a trickster, a cheat, a thief, a killer, a rapist, and sadist, who has caused much anguish to many people. Death comes upon him and he sees all of his evil deeds in all their terrible details. At this moment, his long sleeping conscience, awakened suddenly by the Light, begins to mercilessly reproach him for each of his abominations. What indescribable torment, what despair must grip him, when he can neither forget nor alter all that he has done. This shall, in truth, be the beginning of intolerable inner suffering from which he can never escape. The acknowledgment of the evil he has done, the injury to his soul and the souls of others, will become his "undying worm" and "unquenchable fire."
6. A New World. Certain differences in the descriptions of LAD experiences can be attributed to that fact that the other world is completely different from the one into which we were born and where all of our basic understandings were formed. In the other world, space, time and objects have an entirely different substance to which our senses had been accustomed. The soul entering the other world could be likened to an underground worm that has crawled out to the surface for the first time. It is the first time that it feels sunlight and notices it's warmth, sees beautiful scenery, hears the singing of birds, smells the sweet smells of flowers (assuming, for the purpose of comparison, that a worm could have these senses). All this is so new and wonderful, that he cannot find the words or examples necessary to explain this to the other subterranean inhabitants.
In a comparable way, people who arrive in the other world when they die are at a loss to explain much of what is seen or felt. For example, they stop perceiving distances, which is such a basic attribute of our world. Some insist that they could move themselves effortlessly by thought from one place to another, regardless of how far off it might be. In such a way, a soldier seriously wounded in Vietnam left his body during the operation and watched the doctors' efforts to revive him. "I was there, but the doctor was there and in another way was not. I touched him and my hand just went through him… Then I suddenly returned to the battlefield, where I had been injured, and saw the medics' picking-up the wounded. I wanted to help them, but I returned just as suddenly to the operating room. It's as if one can materialize at will either here or there in the blink of an eye" [5, pg. 33-34]. There are other similar stories of instantaneous transit: "[It's a] purely mental and pleasant process. I wish to be somewhere and I am there." "I have a big problem. The things which I wish to convey, I am forced to do in three dimensions… but what really happened was not a three-dimensional realm" [1, pg. 26].
If you ask a person, who was clinically dead, how long did his condition continue, he usually cannot answer. These people were completely unaware of the passage of time. "It might have been a couple of minutes or a couple of thousand years, there's no difference" [2, pg. 101, 5 pg. 15]. Other survivors of clinical death apparently went to worlds farther removed from our own material world. The saw nature "on the other side" and described it in terms of rolling meadows, a bright green unlike any on earth, birds, animals, singing, music, gardens and meadows of unusual beauty, cities… alas, they could not find the words to competently relay their impressions.
7. The countenance of the soul. As the soul leaves the body, it does not immediately recognize itself. As, for example, the marks of age disappear, the children see themselves as adults and the elderly see themselves in their youth [3, pg. 75-76]. The extremities, arms and legs, lost for any number of reasons appear whole again. The blind can see.
One worker fell from a billboard onto high-voltage wires. As a result of his burns he lost both his legs and part of his arm. He experienced temporary death during his operation. After leaving his material body, he did not immediately recognize it because of the extensive injuries it had sustained. However, he was even more surprised to notice that his spiritual body was completely unhurt [3, pg. 86],
On the Long Island peninsula in the State of New York, lived a seventy-year-old lady who had lost her sight at eighteen years of age. She had a heart attack and was taken to the hospital where she had a near death experience. After her resuscitation, she told the doctor what she had seen while the doctors attempted to revive her. She precisely described all the different machines the doctors used to revive her. This was incredible since the machines in question had not yet been invented when she became blind. She also told the doctor that she had seen him in a blue suit. Of course, once revived she was blind as before [3, pg. 171].
8. Meetings. Some people tell of meeting relatives and friends who were already dead. These meeting happened either with a backdrop of this world or at times the other world. For instance, one woman who experienced temporary death heard the doctor telling her living relatives that she was dying. Leaving the body and rising up, she saw her dead relatives and friends. She recognized them and they were happy to see her. Another woman's dead relatives greeted her and shook her hands. They were dressed in white, they were happy and looked very content… "Suddenly they turned their backs to me and started moving away from me. My grandmother looked over her shoulder and said to me: "We'll see you later, but not this time. My grandmother had died at the age of ninety-six and here she looked to be a healthy and happy forty or forty-five [1 pg. 55]
One man tells about dying from a heart attack while his sister was at the other end of the hospital dying from a diabetic attack. "When I left my body, I unexpectedly met my sister. This pleased me, because I loved her very much. While talking to her, I was following her, but she turned to me and told me to remain where I was explaining that my time had not yet come. When I awoke, I told my doctor that I had just met with my newly departed sister. The doctor did not believe me. However, at my insistence, he sent a nurse to check on her condition and was told that she had just recently died as I had told him" [3, pg. 173].
The soul crossing over into the world beyond the grave, if it does meet someone, primarily meets the souls of those who were close to it in this world. Here, relatives seem to pull one soul to another. For instance, in such a way, an elderly father saw his six deceased children. "There is no age there," he recalled. Now, this is not to say that the souls of the departed wander wherever they will. The Orthodox Church teaches that after the death of the flesh, the Lord designates a temporary place of repose for each soul — either in heaven or in hell. Therefore, the meeting of deceased relatives should not be viewed as a given, but an exception made by the Lord for the benefit of people, who must return to life on earth. It seems they could be described as glimpses rather than actual meetings. One must confess, there is much that is beyond our understanding.
A majority of the stories told by people who have seen "the other side" tell of the same occurrences, but the details differ. Some see what they expected to see. Christians see angels, The Mother of God, Jesus Christ, the saints. Non-religious people see temples of sorts, figures in white or youths or sometimes nothing at all. They only feel a presence.
9. The Language of the Soul. In the spiritual world conversations do not take place in any language known to man or any other language. Apparently, thoughts are communicated directly. This is why people returned to life have difficulty relating in any specific words that were communicated to them by the Light, the angels or whoever it is they met. [1, pg. 60]. Therefore, if all thoughts are heard in the other world, it is in this world that we must learn to always think what is right and good so as not to shame ourselves in that world by way of uncontrolled thoughts.
10. The Threshold. Some individuals finding themselves in the other world tell of seeing something resembling a boundary. Some describe it as a fence or bars on the edge of a field. Others as the beach of a lake or ocean, yet others as a gate, stream or cloud. Thus, it is hard to determine what this border represents. It is important, however, that all perceive it as a boundary, which if crossed will not allow one to return to the previous world. After it, the journey through eternity begins [1, pg. 73-77; 5, pg.51].
11. The Return. Sometimes the recently departed is given a choice on whether or not to return. For instance, the Light might ask, "Are you ready?" It was so for a soldier heavily wounded in the field of battle, who saw his mangled body, and heard the voice. He thought that Jesus Christ was speaking with him. He was given the opportunity to return to the world, where he would live as a cripple, or remain in the world beyond the grave. The soldier chose to return.
Many are pulled back by a want to complete some earthly mission. Once returned, they insisted that God had allowed them to return because their life's work was incomplete. Moreover, they were sure that their return was of their own choosing. The choice having been allowed because it flowed from a sense of responsibility, as in some cases where mothers wished to return to their young children, and not for some self-serving purpose. But, there were those who were returned to the living not by choice. Their souls, already filled with joy, love and peace, in a state of happiness, whose time had not yet come, heard the voice commanding them to return. Attempts to resist the return to the flesh were futile. An unknown force drew them back.
The following is an event from the story of one of Dr. Moody's patients. "I had a heart attack and found myself in a black nothingness. I knew that I had left my body and was dying… I asked God to help me and soon slipped out of the darkness. Before me, I saw a gray fog and people beyond. Their figures were like those on earth and I saw houselike buildings. Everything was covered with a golden light, very soft, not harsh like the one on earth. I experienced otherworldly joy and wanted to cross through the fog, but my Uncle Carl, who had died many years ago, came out and barred my path. He said, "Go back, your task on earth is not complete. Go back, now." And so against her will she returned to her body. She had a small son, who would have floundered without her.
The return to the flesh is sometimes instant, sometimes coinciding with the electric shock or other techniques of reanimation. All sensations vanish and the person feels himself back in his bed. Some feel as if they enter the body through a push. At first feeling uncomfortable and cold. Sometimes, before returning to the body there is a short period of unconsciousness. The doctors who revive patients and other eyewitnesses say that the moment of return to life is often accompanied by a sneeze.
12. A New Attitude towards Life. People, who have been to the other side, usually undergo a change. By the testimony of many, they try to live a better life. Many have become stronger believers in God, changed their way of life, become more serious and pensive. Some have even changed their professions to work in hospitals or senior centers, so they can help those in need. All the stories of those who have survived a death experience tell of phenomenon completely new to modern science, but not to Christianity. Later we will look at these modern experiences of the other world in the light of Orthodox teachings.
Capital Punishment (Crime/Punishment)
Charities is one of the buddhist perfections.
Buddhist charities are responding to the devastation of Typhoon Morakot, which slammed into Taiwan and parts of China late last week.
The Tzu Chi Foundation announced Wednesday it would build 95 prefabricated housing units in eastern Taiwan for people left homeless by the flooding and mudslides. Tzu Chi volunteers have been providing meals, medical care and other assistance all this week. The Foundation was established in 1966 by a Buddhist nun, the Venerable Master Cheng Yen, and since has grown to 5 million members in 45 countries. Tzu Chi is taking donations to support the relief work on its website.
As soon as conditions allowed, Dharma Drum Mountain Social Welfare and Charity Foundation (DDMSWCF) sent groups of volunteers into devastated communities to clean up debris (see their photo album). The Dharma Drum volunteers brought victims food, clean water, sleeping bags and flashlights. Dharma Drum was established by the late Master Sheng Yen to promote Buddhist education, compassion and service to all beings. It also is now an international organization with worldwide affiliates.
Buddhist say there is no justification for war in Buddhist teaching. Yet Buddhism has not always separated itself from war. There is historic documentation that in 621 CE monks from the Shaolin Temple of China fought in a battle that helped establish the Tang Dynasty. In centuries past, the heads of Tibetan Buddhist schools formed strategic alliances with Mongol warlords and reaped benefits from the warlords' victories.
Is War Always Wrong?
Buddhism challenges us to look beyond a simple right/wrong dichotomy. In Buddhism, an act that sows the seeds of harmful karma is regrettable even if it unavoidable. Sometimes Buddhists fight to defend their nations, home and family. This is not "wrong." Yet even in these circumstances, to harbor hate for one's enemies is still a poison. And any act of war that sows the seeds of future harmful karma is still akusala.
--BAT1B 2011: Jaume Lloret García 14:03, 2. Jun. 2011 (CEST)
The Environment (Ecology)
Bullying is abusive treatment, the use of force or coercion to affect others, particularly when habitual and involving an imbalance of power. It may involve verbal harassment, physical assault or coercion and may be directed persistently towards particular victims, perhaps on grounds of race, religion, sex or ability. The "imbalance of power" may be social power and/or physical power. The victim of bullying is sometimes referred to as a "target."
Types of abuse
Bullying consists of three basic types of abuse – emotional, verbal and physical. It typically involves subtle methods of coercion such as intimidation. Bullying can be defined in many different ways. Although the UK currently has no legal definition of bullying, some US states have laws against it.
Bullying can occur in any context in which human beings interact with each other. This includes school, church, family, the workplace, home and neighborhoods. It is even a common push factor in migration. Bullying can exist between social groups, social classes and even between countries (see jingoism). In fact on an international scale, perceived or real imbalances of power between nations, in both economic systems and in treaty systems, are often cited as some of the primary causes of both World War I and World War II.
Emotional abuse | Physical abuse | Verbal abuse
Medical Issues (Genetic Engineering/ Transplants/ Donating Organs)
Buddhist attitudes about organ donation
Agree that organ donation is an extremely positive event because it emanates from a truly compassionate desire to benefit others. So, always respond to a sincere desire of the dying, can not in any way impair the consciousness that is about to leave the body.
Instead, this final act of generosity accumulates good karma.
One teacher said that all the pain and suffering that a person can experience at the time of donating their organs, and every moment of distraction, it becomes good karma.
The Dalai Lama is a Buddhist leader of religious officials of the Gelug or "Yellow Hat" branch of Tibetan Buddhism.In religious terms, the Dalai Lama is believed by his devotees to be the rebirth of a long line of tulkus who are considered to be manifestations of the bodhisattva of compassion, Avalokiteśvara. Traditionally, the Dalai Lama is thought of as the latest reincarnation of a series of spiritual leaders who have chosen to be reborn in order to enlighten others.
THREE MAIN COMITTMENTS
His Holiness has three main commitments in life.
Firstly, on the level of a human being, His Holiness’ first commitment is the promotion of human values such as compassion, forgiveness, tolerance, contentment and self-discipline. All human beings are the same. We all want happiness and do not want suffering.
Secondly, on the level of a religious practitioner, His Holiness’ second commitment is the promotion of religious harmony and understanding among the world’s major religious traditions. Despite philosophical differences, all major world religions have the same potential to create good human beings. It is therefore important for all religious traditions to respect one another and recognize the value of each other’s respective traditions.
Thirdly, His Holiness is a Tibetan and carries the name of the ‘Dalai Lama’. Tibetans place their trust in him. Therefore, his third commitment is to the Tibetan issue. --BAT1A 2011: Carolina Pérez Feuerstein 09:50, 18. Mai 2011 (CEST)
DALAI LAMA EXPRESSIONS
1.Take into account that great love and great achievements involve great risk.
2.When you lose, don't lose the lesson.
3.Follow the three R's Respect for self, respect for others and responsibility for all your actions
--BAT1A 2011: Carolina Pérez Feuerstein 09:47, 18. Mai 2011 (CEST)
He was born on 6 July 1935, to a farming family, in a small hamlet located in Taktser, Amdo, northeastern Tibet. At the age of two the child, who was named Lhamo Dhondup at that time was recognized as the reincarnation of the 13th Dalai Lama, Thubten Gyatso. The Dalai Lamas are believed to be manifestations of Avalokiteshvara or Chenrezig, the Bodhisattva of Compassion and patron saint of Tibet. Childhood
He was the fifth amongst the 16 children of the family, who lived in a small village of Taktser, in the province of Amdo, Tibet.Tenzin Gyatso was recognized as the reincarnation of the thirteenth Dalai Lama at the tender age of two.
Tenzin Gyatso started his monastic education when he was six years old.He studied Buddhist philosophy.He was awarded the Geshe Lharampa Degree (Doctorate of Buddhist Philosophy) at the age of 25.
After China’s invasion of Tibet, in 1949, His Holiness the Dalai Lama was called upon to take charge as the Head of the State and Government.Dalai Lama paid a visit to India in 1956.During the visit, he met the then Prime Minister Nehru and held talks with him, regarding the deteriorating conditions in Tibet.
Dalai Lama had to seek exile in India in 1959, when Chinese military repressed the Tibetan national uprising. Since then, he has been residing at Dharamsala, in the northern part of India. He also set up the Government of Tibet in Exile in Dharamsala, which is known as “Little Lhasa”. His Holiness the Dalai Lama appealed to the United Nations during his exile in India, seeking justice for Tibet. As a result, the United Nations General Assembly passed three resolutions on the question of Tibet
Five-Point Peace Plan
His Holiness the Dalai Lama continued to take initiatives and find a solution for the Tibetan issues. In 1987, he proposed a Five-Point Peace Plan at the Congressional Human Rights Caucus. This plan required the designation of Tibet as a zone of peace and called for restoration of fundamental rights and democratic
freedoms to Tibetans.
The sincere efforts of His Holiness the Dalai Lama, to provide independence to the Tibetans, have achieved worldwide recognition. The 'Man of Peace', as he is fondly called, was awarded the prestigious Noble Peace Prize in 1989, for his non-violent struggle for liberation of Tibet.
Buddhist Quotes & Sayings
- "To wait until tomorrow is too late. Death comes unexpectedly. How can we bargain with it? The sage calls a person who knows how to dwell in mindfulness night and day, 'one who knows the better way to live alone."
Bhadderkaratta Sutta was preached in an old monastery called Jetavana. It was the second monastery donated to Buddha. Jetavana was the place where Buddha gave many teachings and discourses, more than in any other place, located just outside the old city of
- Sāvatthi : 
--BAT1A 2011: Angélica Camacho Pellón 09:28, 11. Mai 2011 (CEST)
- "Do not pursue the past. Do not lose yourself in the future. The past no longer is. The future has not yet come. Looking deeply at life as it is. In the very here and now, the practitioner dwells in stability and freedom. We must be diligent today. Take small account of might, wealth and fame, for they soon pass and are forgotten. Instead, nurture love within you and and strive to be a friend to all. Truly, compassion is a balm for many wounds."
- "Treasure silence when you find it, and while being mindful of your duties, set time aside, to be alone with yourself."
- "Despite all appearances, no one is really evil. They are led astray by ignorance. If you ponder this truth always you will offer more light, rather then blame and condemnation."
- "Remember always that you are just a visitor here, a traveler passing through. your stay is but short and the moment of your departure unknown."
Digha Nikaya, 16
- "Make an island of yourself, make yourself your refuge; there is no other refuge. Make truth your island, make truth your refuge; there is no other refuge."
Venerable Cheng Yen
- "Happiness does not come from having much, but from being attached to little."
H.H. The 14th Dalai Lama
- "Sometimes one creates a dynamic impression by saying something, and sometimes one creates as significant an impression by remaining silent."
- "Through violence, you may 'solve' one problem, but you sow the seeds for another."
- "First one must change. I first watch myself, check myself, then expect changes from others."
- "If the love within your mind is lost and you see other beings as enemies, then no matter how much knowledge or education or material comfort you have, only suffering and confusion will ensue."
- "Encountering sufferings will definitely contribute to the elevation of your spiritual practice, provided you are able to transform calamity and misfortune into the path."
- "The purpose of all the major religious traditions is not to construct big temples on the outside, but to create temples of goodness and compassion inside, in our hearts."
Bhante Henepola Gunaratana, "Mindfulness in Plain English"
- "View all problems as challenges. Look upon negativities that arise as opportunities to learn and to grow. Don't run from them, condemn yourself, or bury your burden in saintly silence. You have a problem? Great. More grist for the mill. Rejoice, dive in, and investigate."
Drakpa Gyaltsen Drakpa Gyaltsen was a Tibetan spiritual leader and the third of the Five Venerable Supreme Sakya Masters of Tibet.
- "Humans prepare for the future all their lives, yet meet the next life totally unprepared."
- "Be gentle first with yourself - if you wish to be gentle with others."
Useful Links & Bibliography:
- http:// www.nationalgeographic.com/xpeditions/lessons/06/g912/buddhism.html.Lesson Plans
- http:// asiasociety.org/eductaion-learning/resources-schools/professional-learning/explore-world-online.
Asian Society & Useful Links
- THE MONK THAT SOLD HIS FERRARI, Robin S. Sharma, (Harper San Francisco 1999)
- An Introduction to Buddhist Ethics: foundations, values & issues, Brian Peter Harvey,(Cambridge 1990)- Contemporary Buddhist Ethics, Damien Keown, (Curzon 2000)